Yes, Weed Kills Cancer, But How?

How Do Cannabinoids Kill Cancer? – Dennis Hill

I was recently inspired to write something I’ve been thinking about for a long time. I notice in the popular literature, and even in the research, we really don’t see how cannabis kills cancer. I wanted to be able to write a one page piece on How It Works that anyone could understand in order to have confidence with this process that has generated a wide range of opinions.
~Dennis
cannabinoides-cancer-sein-prostate-5-910x702There is a plentiful supply of research articles and personal testaments that show the efficacy of cannabis effecting cancer remission. However, only a few point to the mechanism by which the cancer cells die. To understand this better we need to know what metabolic processes provide life to the cells.

There are two structures in most cells that sustain life; one is the mitochondria, and the other is the endoplasmic reticulum. The mitochondria primarily produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provides the necessary energy. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a loosely bound envelope around the cell nucleus that synthesizes metabolites and proteins directed by the nuclear DNA that nourish and sustain the cell.

Let us look first at tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and observe that THC is a natural fit for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor on the cancer cell surface. When THC hits the receptor, the cell generates ceramide that disrupts the mitochondria, closing off energy for the cell.

Disruption of the mitochondria releases cytochrome c and reactive oxygen species into the cytosol, hastening cell death. It is notable that this process is specific to cancer cells. Healthy cells have no reaction to THC at the CB1 receptor. The increase in ceramide also disrupts calcium metabolism in the mitochondria, completing the demise to cell death.

The other cannabinoid we know is effective in killing cancer cells is cannabidiol (CBD). The primary job of CBD in the cancer cell is to disrupt the endoplasmic reticulum through wrecking of the calcium metabolism, pushing calcium into the cytosol. This always results in cell death. Another pathway for CBD to effect cancer cell death is the Caspase Cascade, which breaks down proteins and peptides in the cell. When this happens the cell cannot survive. Again, these processes are specific to cancer cells, no normal cells are affected.

Reference:

1. The Journal of Neuroscience, February 18, 2009 • 29(7):2053–2063 • 2053 

Cannabidiol Targets Mitochondria to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Levels.

 Duncan Ryan, Alison J. Drysdale, Carlos Lafourcade, Roger G. Pertwee, and Bettina Platt.

School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom.

2. Mol Cancer Ther July 2011 10; 1161

Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy

Ashutosh Shrivastava, Paula M. Kuzontkoski, Jerome E. Groopman, and Anil Prasad.

Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

h/t Patients For Medical Cannabis

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Cancer Patients That Are Simply Cheating The System For A Buzz…

There is hope…

Hope, even for a teen with brain cancer

Winlock 15-year-old Taylor Rehmeyer has battled an aggressive brain cancer for nearly a decade with chemotherapy and radiation. But she and her mother say it was marijuana that finally cured her.

“She got an MRI (in May) that said no major abnormalities. The doctors at Seattle Children’s Hospital don’t want to admit it was cannabis, but I don’t care. She’s cancer-free,” Karen Owen said in a recent interview. “It’s more than we could have ever hoped for.”

Taylor was diagnosed at age 6 with a rare brain tumor that has returned three times.

In September 2012, Taylor was one of the first children in America to receive proton radiation at Philadelphia’s Roberts Proton Therapy Center. The high-tech treatments worked — for awhile. Taylor’s tumor shrunk after initial radiation sessions but started growing again last August.

That’s when Owen, determined to heal her daughter, turned to marijuana oil therapy.

Hope, even for the idiotic, lying, Drug Warriors

Michigan Prosecutor Loses Case After Anti-Medical Marijuana Rant

An attorney’s opinionated rant against marijuana in a Michigan courtroom last week cost her a case, even though most seemed to agree she had won.

In her closing arguments in a case against a Michigan medical cannabis patient accused of growing more than he was allowed, Alger County prosecutor Karen Bahrman went off on a tear on the state’s medical marijuana laws, the Alger Hemp Coalition, a local cannabis advocacy group, and patients in general. She said their vision was to live in a “country where everybody can walk around stoned.”

Basically, she wants medical cannabis patients to sit down, shut up and don’t make any waves – even if things don’t seem right.

“They do nothing to support the government services they want, and have nothing but criticism for the government services they don’t want,” Bahrman ranted. “We’re trespassers and tramplers of their rights right up until they need us to protect them from the violence that they attract to the community.”

Paul Heminger, the man on trial for growing more than he was allowed, was sentenced to six months in jail at the time but has since been issued a new trial by the court, who agreed on a 3-0 vote that Bahrman went too far with her “unfounded, irrelevant and inflammatory statements.”

“The prosecutor embarks on a political commentary, and a personal diatribe discrediting the (law) as a whole,” the court ruled. “She calls the act ‘meaningless,’ and suggests that those suffering from chronic pain are simply cheating the system.”

Times are a’changin’. Sanity begins to show.

It won’t be long now…

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Three Grannies Experience The Evil Weed (Watch Them Turn Into Mexican Rapists Before Your Eyes)

No grandmas were harmed in the making of this video

Published on Nov 19, 2014

We found three grandmas who had never smoked pot and gave them an opportunity to try it for the first time. Then we gave them snacks and had them play cards against humanity.

And a link to the condensed version: http://youtu.be/nenE0YxBl80

Talent
Paula
Dorothea
Deirdre

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Crohn’s Disease Cured With Use Of Marijuana Oil

Shona Banda’s amazing story is just one more reason why people need to wake up about this miracle medicine and demand that it be made legal. Not just medically, but simply like cabbage. Usage in teens does not go up as has been shown in Colorado and other places. All the general accepted arguments have now been thoroughly shown to be the outright lies they were. There really is no defending the prohibition any longer.

Shona’s story touches me because this brave woman (and her husband) decided to take her life into her own hands. By scraping the residue from a home made machine and ingesting the oil, she healed herself of this terminal disease (I’ve known several people that had it and it is horrible what they go through). Apparently, she was able to buy some, but what if she were very poor and couldn’t afford it (black market, or legalized, which is expensive)?

It is a crying shame people have to resort to this… worried about illegalities… knowing that it is all a farce… many times choosing to suffer and die than fight for your life because of profits (for there cannot be another viable explanation for its continued prohibition). People could grow just a few plants for enough medicine to cure Crohn’s Disease, dammit!

Think of that.


h/t PatientsForMedicalCannabis

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Official Police Business

Sometimes they want to stick a catheter up your pee pee to prove you are a dopehead.

Sometimes they want to stick a needle in your veins without your permission (just because they can).

Sometimes its just a silly finger in the criminal’s anus.

Sometimes they show support for the needy, like this deputy who was making fun of retarded people on his Facebook Page.

image9

Sometimes, its these heroes doing their dangerous job like this SWAT team that took down some very dangerous terrorist barbers:

“With some team members dressed in ballistic vests and masks, and with guns drawn, the deputies rushed into their target destinations, handcuffed the stunned occupants—and demanded to see their barbers’ licenses,”

Sometimes the cops just want to smell your feet (or panties).

Other times, they simply use made-up terrorist fear tactics to instill legislation (like the Patriot Act: not that anyone here would have seen this coming) that simply makes it easier to bust you for weed  and does nothing to actually catch non-existent terrorists.

And then we have the cops raping women and kids (apparently with several other cops watching and getting their jollies), some with the intent to EAT their victims. But don’t fret, Cannibal Cop is a model citizen, just like your next door neighbor:

But defense lawyers say in court papers he’s well on his way to becoming a model citizen. They say he hopes to become a lawyer and stays in contact with inmates he met during 21 months in prison.

And then, our vaunted terrorist catching organization called Homeland security is extremely preoccupied with catching these killer criminal panty copyright infringers (thank goodness that the panty making terrorists have been shut down).

 

It’s all Official Police Business.

Shut Up and Submit!

 

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Another Weed Lie Abolished: Smoking Does NOT Make You Stupid

Even in children:

Latest science shows there is no relationship between cannabis use and lower IQ

From Alternet

Moderate cannabis consumption by young people is not positively associated with changes in intelligence quotient (IQ), according to data [2] presented this week at the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology annual congress in Berlin, Germany.

Investigators at the University College of London analyzed data from 2,612 subjects who had their IQ tested at the age of eight and again at age 15. They reported no relationship between cannabis use and lower IQ at age 15 [3] when confounding factors such as subjects’ history of alcohol use and cigarette use were taken into account.

marijuana_legalization

“In particular alcohol use was found to be strongly associated with IQ decline,” the authors wrote in a press release cited [3] by The Washington Post. “No other factors were found to be predictive of IQ change.”

Quoted in the Independent Business Times, the study’s lead author said: “Our findings suggest cannabis may not have a detrimental effect on cognition, once we account for other related factors particularly cigarette and alcohol use. This may suggest that previous research findings showing poorer cognitive performance in cannabis users may have resulted from the lifestyle, behavior and personal history typically associated with cannabis use, rather than cannabis use itself.”

The investigators acknowledged that more chronic marijuana use, defined in the study as a subject’s admission of having consumed cannabis 50 times or more by age 15, was correlated with slightly poorer exam results at the age of 16 — even after controlling for other variables. However, investigators admitted [2]: “It’s hard to know what causes what. Do kids do badly at school because they are smoking weed, or do they smoke weed because they’re doing badly?”

Commenting on the newly presented data, the meeting’s Chair, Guy Goodwin, from the University of Oxford, told [2] BBC News: “This is a potentially important study because it suggests that the current focus on the alleged harms of cannabis may be obscuring the fact that its use is often correlated with that of other even more freely available drugs and possibly lifestyle factors.”

In a recent review published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the NIDA Director Nora Volkow alleged [4] that cannabis use, particularly by adolescents, is associated with brain alterations and lower IQ. However, the IQ study [5] cited by Ms. Volkow as the basis of her claim was later questioned in a separate analysis published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. That paper suggested [6] that socioeconomics, not subjects’ cannabis use, was responsible for differences in IQ and that the plant’s “true effect [on intelligence quotient] could be zero.”

previous assessment [7] of cannabis use and its potential impact on intelligence quotient in a cohort of young people tracked since birth reported, “[M]arijuana does not have a long-term negative impact on global intelligence.”

MARCH 15. 2014 (20)

pt_1022_345_oWe were permeated with lies as we grew up. I came up in the late 60’s and 70’s when it was more accepted, but still had the stigma (it was just the beginning of the Drug War and everyone knew Nixon defied his own advisers to do so). The Drug War Profiteers have used every imaginable lie and distortion to keep this medicine from your hands, especially the tired old “it’s for the children” garbage. Even many commenters here over the years have argued with me on this very subject, when I knew anecdotally and via experience with many teens over the years that it was mostly scare tactics, perpetuating the lies to keep the MEDICINE illegal (thereby keeping Pharmacuetical companies, drug rehabs, private and state prisons in business; not to mention the extra loot for the police force that would rather do the easy job of busting the stink instead of, say, busting rapers.

According to the Department of Justice, there are currently over 400,000 untested rape kits collecting dust in police evidence rooms nationwide, and many other estimates suggest that this number could be as high as one million.

As a result of this horrific negligence, roughly 3% of rape cases in America are actually solved, despite the fact that many rape kits have a high chance of leading to an arrest, since most rapists are career criminals who have their DNA on file.

In some cases, the victims even know who their attackers were, but they can not prosecute these criminals because the evidence has not been processed by police.

Bobbie Villareal, Executive Director of the Dallas Area Rape Crisis Center, admitted that many police departments cut corners in rape cases because testing is expensive, and the investigation requires a lot of work.

Busting for the stink doesn’t take much work.

62406480c011e4c2d8-tm

Now, just because I call out the liars on this subject does not mean that I think children should be getting high. I don’t. I won’t want my child doing it until she is grown and makes that decision for herself. So, why the seeming contradiction? Because the one thing I know weed CAN do is demotivate certain personality types (and that has a lot to do with the type and potency of the cannabis). I have known people who smoked the joints too much and ended up on the couch with no motivation to do much of anything.

As a matter of fact, one of the smartest people I know was a very heavy pot head. He would wake and bake and smoke all day long. He didn’t want to do much else. (On the other hand, I worked with a guy in construction that was high all day and could out work anyone on the site)

picture-1-67-tmTHIS, if anything, should be the warning to kids (to anyone, for that matter). Know what you are partaking of and how it affects you. Limit your usage if you do not want to abstain. Find people with experience that you can talk to (but be careful of the narcs ready to snitch on anyone to get that blue pat on the back). Best thing is to wait until you are an adult and move to where it is legal. Someday, I believe in the next few short years, it will legalized virtually everywhere in the US, except for the most backwards states such as mine.

Realistically, though, if this substance was legal and readily available like alcohol, people would learn which strain helps them the most without the lethargy and demotivation.

As it is, you take what you can get and hope for the best. Legalized, all of that goes away and you choose exactly which “bourbon” or “Scotch”, “Irish whiskey” you desire and works for you.

149053_165909793449481_100000913848112_319717_3279871_n

h/t Patients4MedicalMarijuana and The Free Thought Project

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All posts are opinions meant to foster comment, reporting, teaching & study under the “fair use doctrine” in Sec. 107 of U.S. Code Title 17. No statement of fact is made or should be implied. Ads appearing on this blog are solely the product of the advertiser and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of BuehlahMan’s Revolt or WordPress.com

Cannabis Cures Cancer by Dr Sircus

Cannabis Cures Cancer

by Dr Sircus

marijuana2_clip_image011

There should be no more confusion about whether or not marijuana is effective for cancer patients. Medical marijuana is chemotherapy, natural style, for all cancer patients. The two forms of hemp oil, one with THC and CBD and the other CBD alone (which is pretty much legal everywhere) provide the body with chemo therapeutics without the danger and staggering side effects. There are many chapters in this book about cancer patients using marijuana but in this one we present a quick overview of the science that backs up the assertion that every cancer patient and every oncologist should put medical marijuana on their treatment maps.

What you will see in this chapter is reference to many scientific studies that are all viewable on governmental sites. The United States government is pathetic in its dishonesty about medical marijuana both believing in it and holding patents for its medical use and claiming at the same time that it has no medical use. The federal government and still many states would rather throw innocent people in jail for using medical marijuana than be honest about how much it can help people recover from cancer and other diseases.

Below are summaries to just some of the scientific research out there that sustains the belief that medical marijuana will help people cure their cancer.

One of the most exciting areas of current research in the cannabinoid field is the study of the potential application of these compounds as antitumor drugs. CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness.[1],[2] The CBD concentrations effective at inhibiting Id-1 expression correlated with those used to inhibit the proliferative and invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells. Of the five cannabinoids tested: cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannnabichromene; cannabidiol-acid and THC-acid, it was found that cannabidiol is the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth. Taken together, these data might set the bases for a cannabinoid therapy for the management of breast cancer.[3]

marijuana2_clip_image012

Results show that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reduces tumor growth, tumor number, and the amount/severity of lung metastases in MMTV-neu mice.[4] Cannabinoids induce ICAM-1, thereby conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased cancer cell invasiveness thus inhibits lung cancer invasion and metastasis.[5]

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Researchers have observed expression of CB1 (24%) and CB2 (55%) in NSCLC patients. They have also shown that the treatment of NSCLC cell lines (A549 and SW-1573) with CB1/CB2- and CB2-specific agonists Win55,212-2 and JWH-015, respectively, significantly attenuated random as well as growth factor-directed in vitro chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in these cells.[6]

Researchers in lung cancers also reported that they observed significant reduction in focal adhesion complex, which plays an important role in cancer migration. Medical marijuana significantly inhibited in vivo tumor growth and lung metastasis (∼50%).[7]

In research on pancreatic cancer it was found that cannabinoids lead to apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via a CB2 receptor and de novo synthesized ceramide-dependent up-regulation of p8 and the endoplasmic reticulum stress–related genes ATF-4 and TRB3. These findings may contribute to set the basis for a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer as reported by the National Cancer Institute.

Prostate cancer cells possess increased expression of both cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors, and stimulation of these results in decrease in cell viability, increased apoptosis, and decreased androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen excretion.[8]

In colorectal carcinoma cell lines, cannabidiol protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels and reduced cell proliferation in a CB(1)-, TRPV1- and PPARγ-antagonists sensitive manner. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.[9]

Ovarian cancer represents one of the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for women and is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Results with medical marijuana support a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer. It is also conceivable that with available cannabinoids as lead compounds, non-habit forming agents that have higher biological effects could be developed.[10]

Examination of a number of human leukaemia and lymphoma cell lines demonstrate that CB2 cannabinoid receptors expressed on malignancies of the immune system may serve as potential targets for the induction of apoptosis. Also, because CB2 agonists lack psychotropic effects, they may serve as novel anticancer agents to selectively target and kill tumors of immune origin.[11] Plant-derived cannabinoids, including Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), induce apoptosis in leukemic cells.[12]

Cannabinoid-treated tumors showed an increased number of apoptotic cells. This was accompanied by impairment of tumor vascularization, as determined by altered blood vessel morphology and decreased expression of proangiogenic factors (VEGF, placental growth factor, and angiopoietin. Abrogation of EGF-R function was also observed in cannabinoid-treated tumors.[13] These results support a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of skin tumors.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide. When these tumors are in advanced stages, few therapeutic options are available. In this study, the effects of cannabinoids–a novel family of potential anticancer agents–on the growth of HCC was investigated. It was found that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC, the main active component of Cannabis sativa) and JWH-015 (a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2)) cannabinoid receptor-selective agonist) reduced the viability of the human HCC cell lines Cannabinoids were able to inhibit tumor growth and ascites in an orthotopic model of HCC xenograft.[14] These findings may contribute to the design of new therapeutic strategies for the management of HCC.

Both cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and surgical specimens from cholangiocarcinoma patients expressed cannabinoid receptors. THC inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis. THC also decreased actin polymerization and reduced tumor cell survival in anoikis assay. pMEK1/2 and pAkt demonstrated the lower extent than untreated cells. Consequently, THC is potentially used to retard cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis.[15]

Smoking marijuana might decrease the smoker’s risk for bladder cancer, a new study shows. Retrospectively analyzing a large database of patients, researchers at Kaiser Permanente in California found that patients who reported cannabis use were 45% less likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer than patients who did not smoke at all.

THC is a potent inducer of apoptosis, even at 1 x IC(50) (inhibitory concentration 50%) concentrations and as early as 6 hours after exposure to the drug. These effects were seen in leukemic cell lines (CEM, HEL-92, and HL60) as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.[16] Cannabinoids represent a novel class of drugs active in increasing the life span in  mice carrying Lewis lung tumors and decreasing primary tumor size.[17]

marijuana2_clip_image014

Research has also found a cannabidiol-driven impaired invasion of human cervical cancer (HeLa, C33A) and human lung cancer cells (A549) that was reversed by antagonists to both CB(1) and CB(2) receptorrs as well as to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). The decrease of invasion by cannabidiol appeared concomitantly with up regulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP the findings provide a novel mechanism underlying the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol and imply its use as a therapeutic option for the treatment of highly invasive cancers.[18]

A new anticancer quinone (HU-331) was synthesized from cannabidiol. It shows significant high efficacy against human cancer cell lines in vitro and against in vivo tumor grafts in nude mice. Two non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl (CBD-DMH), induced apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cell line.[19]

Other studies show a synthetic and potent cannabinoid receptor agonist, investigated in hepatoma HepG2 cells and a possible signal transduction pathway that is proposed, indicates a potential positive role in liver cancer.[20] Cannabinoids have been found to counteract intestinal inflammation and colon cancer.[21]

The control of the cellular proliferation has become a focus of major attention as opening new therapeutic possibilities for the use of cannabinoids as potential antitumor agents.[22] Cannabinoid treatment inhibits angiogenesis of gliomas in vivo.[23] Remarkably, cannabinoids kill glioma cells selectively and can protect non-transformed glial cells from death. These and other findings reviewed here might set the basis for a potential use of cannabinoids in the management of gliomas. Other confirming studies may provide the basis for a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas.[24]

In summary

Cannabinoids are found to exert their anti-cancer effects in a number of ways and in a variety of tissues.

  • Triggering cell death, through a mechanism called apoptosis
  • Stopping cells from dividing
  • Preventing new blood vessels from growing into tumours
  • Reducing the chances of cancer cells spreading through the body, by stopping cells from moving or invading neighbouring tissue
  • Speeding up the cell’s internal ‘waste disposal machine’ – a process known as autophagy – which can lead to cell death

All these effects are thought to be caused by cannabinoids locking onto the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.  Almost daily we are seeing new or confirming evidence that Cannibinoids can be used to great benefit in cancer treatment of many types.

mm

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[1] Crosstalk between chemokine receptor CXCR4 and cannabinoid receptor CB2 in modulating breast cancer growth and invasion. Nasser MW; et al; PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23901. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023901. Epub 2011 Sep 7;  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21915267 .

[2] Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells; McAllister SDet al; Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Nov;6(11):2921-7; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18025276.

[3] Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells through Cdc2 regulation; Caffarel MM et al; Cancer Res; 2006 Jul 1;66(13):6615-21; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16818634

[4] Cannabinoids: a new hope for breast cancer therapy?
Caffarel MM et al; Cancer Treat Rev.: 2012 Nov; 38(7):911-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2012.06.005. Epub 2012 Jul 7;  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22776349

[5] Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1.Ramer R et al; FASEB J.; 2012 Apr;26(4):1535-48. doi: 10.1096/fj.11-198184. Epub 2011 Dec 23; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198381?dopt=Abstract

[6] Cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as novel targets for inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer growth and metastasis; Preet A, et al; Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Jan;4(1):65-75. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0181. Epub 2010 Nov 19; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21097714?dopt=Abstract

[7] Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo; A Preetet al; Oncogene; (2008) 27, 339–346; doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210641; published online 9 July 2007;  http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v27/n3/abs/1210641a.html

[8] The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications;Juan A. Ramos and Fernando J. Bianco; Indian J Urol. 2012 Jan-Mar; 28(1): 9–14;.doi:10.4103/0970-1591.94942http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3339795/?report=classic

[9] Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.
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[10] Cannabinoid receptors as a target for therapy of ovarian cancer

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[11] Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease.
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[12] Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells is regulated by translocation of Bad to mitochondria.
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[13] Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors.
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[14] Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids on hepatocellular carcinoma: role of AMPK-dependent activation of autophagy. Vara D et al; Cell Death Differ; 2011 Jul;18(7):1099-111. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2011.32. Epub 2011 Apr 8.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21475304

[15] The dual effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on cholangiocarcinoma cells: anti-invasion activity at low concentration and apoptosis induction at high concentration. Leelawat Set al; Cancer Invest. 2010 May;28(4):357-63. doi: 10.3109/07357900903405934; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916793.

[16] Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway;Powles T et al; Blood;.2005 Feb 1;105(3):1214-21; Epub 2004 Sep 28.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15454482

[17] In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas; Friedman MA; Cancer Biochem Biophys. 1977;2(2):51-4.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/616322

[18] Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1; Ramer Ret al; Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 Apr 1;79(7):955-66. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.11.007. Epub 2009 Nov 13; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914218

[19] Gamma-irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. Gallily R et al; Leuk Lymphoma.: 2003 Oct;44(10):1767-73; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14692532.

[20] Apoptosis induced in HepG2 cells by the synthetic cannabinoid WIN: involvement of the transcription factor PPARgamma. Giuliano Met et al; Biochimie;. 2009 Apr;91(4):457-65. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2008.11.003. Epub 2008 Nov 27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19059457

[21] Cannabinoids in intestinal inflammation and cancer. Izzo AA1, Camilleri M.; Pharmacol Res; 2009 Aug;60(2):117-25. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.03.008. Epub 2009 Mar 18; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442536

[22] Involvement of cannabinoids in cellular proliferation;López-Rodríguez ML et al; ;Mini Rev Med Chem; 2005 Jan;5(1):97-106 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15638794

[23] Hypothesis: cannabinoid therapy for the treatment of gliomas? Velasco G et al;  Neuropharmacology;.2004 Sep;47(3):315-23; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15275820

[24] Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation; Galve-Roperh; Nat Med.; 2000 Mar;6(3):313-9; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10700234

 


 

h/t GreenMedInfo

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